Towards High-quality Visualization of Superfluid Vortices


Yulong Guo*, Xiaopei Liu, Chi Xiong, Xuemiao Xu and Chi-Wing Fu

IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics (TVCG), accepted for publication, 2017


Abstract -

Superfluidity is a special state of matter exhibiting macroscopic quantum phenomena and acting like a fluid with zero viscosity. In such a state, superfluid vortices exist as phase singularities of the model equation with unique distributions. This paper presents novel techniques to aid the visual understanding of superfluid vortices based on the state-of-the-art non-linear Klein-Gordon equation, which evolves a complex scalar field, giving rise to special vortex lattice/ring structures with dynamic vortex formation, reconnection, and Kelvin waves, etc. By formulating a numerical model with theoretical physicists in superfluid research, we obtain high-quality superfluid flow data sets without noise-like waves, suitable for vortex visualization. By further exploring superfluid vortex properties, we develop a new vortex identification and visualization method: a novel mechanism with velocity circulation to overcome phase singularity and an orthogonal-plane strategy to avoid ambiguity. Hence, our visualizations can help reveal various superfluid vortex structures and enable domain experts for related visual analysis, such as the steady vortex lattice/ring structures, dynamic vortex string interactions with reconnections and energy radiations, where the famous Kelvin waves and decaying vortex tangle were clearly observed. These visualizations have assisted physicists to verify the superfluid model, and further explore its dynamic behavior more intuitively.
















More Results


1. Vortex lattice with increasing angular velocity, which satisfies Feynman relation



2. Energy release during vortex reconnection


3. Comparison to real experiments